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Midwestern States Environmental Consultants Association   

Conference on Environmental Liabilities,
Risk Assessment, and Remediation


A conference dedicated to advancing the professional competence of attendees through education and dissemination of environmental information relevant to the world’s leading businesses.

Takeaways from the Conference:

  • Technical sessions focused on identifying and quantifying environmental liabilities, evaluating environmental risks and effecting remediation and risk management

  • New tools and techniques for site investigation, remediation, and risk evaluations

  • Recent updates to regulatory guidance and statutes

  • Emerging contaminants and how they potentially may be impacting businesses

  • Collaboration with clients, regulators, colleagues, and vendors


WHEN:

Monday, December 10th
    1:00pm - 7:00pm
Tuesday, December 11th
    8:00am - 4:30pm

WHERE:
Ritz Charles Event Center
12156 N Meridian St
Carmel, Indiana, USA


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MSECA would like to thank the following sponsors for their support:
     
 

After Party Sponsor
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Program Sponsor
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Break Sponsor
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Conference Registration:

Register before November 19th to attend the Conference at following discounted rates:

  Member Non-Member
Conference Registration

Check your company's status at:

http://www.mseca.org/MSECA_Members.php

Environmental consulting companies can Join MSECA and all employees will receive discounted registration to all our educational events.
$295.00

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$395.00

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Industry Professionals Registration


Related environmental professionals, such as Health & Safety or Environmental Compliance Managers, who wouldn't qualify for Consultant Membership or Associate (Vendor / Supplier) Membership, but would still benefit from the education, are invited to attend the Conference at a discounted rate.

$295.00


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  Member Non-Member
Government / Regulator Registration

Government Members
receive discount on registration.

(Note: Currently IDEM & Indiana Brownfields are both MSECA Members)
$195.00

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$215.00

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  Member Non-Member
Student Registration

Full time students who join MSECA at our Student Member rate receive a discount on registration.
$145.00

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$165.00

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Conference Schedule:

Monday, December 10th

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Tuesday, December 11th

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Presentation Descriptions:

Below is a partial list of the presentations that have been accepted. More will soon be added to the list.


27 Years of Hydraulic Fracturing to Remediate Glacial Clay Till

Drew Baird, PG & William Slack, PhD, PE, FRx, Inc.
See Presentation Description

Hydraulic fracturing has been used at hundreds of sites to enhance a variety of remedial approaches, from air sparging and soil vapor extraction to chemical oxidation and reduction. The technology was first utilized to treat glacial clay till in 1991. That project site, in suburban Chicago, utilized sand lenses emplaced by hydraulic fracturing methods to enhance contaminant recovery in the vadose zone with SVE. Results and analysis will be presented from the Chicago site as well as glacial till sites in Denmark, Ohio, Iowa, and Missouri.

Attendees will be able to understand:

  1. how fractures propagate in the subsurface,
  2. what methods are utilized to create viable fracture form, and
  3. how fractures have been utilized to accelerate and enhance remediation in glacial clay till formations.

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Air Data Quality - The inside story on Sampling, Air Media and sample Matrix effects can have an effect on the decision making associated with Laboratory Data.

Wil Elcoate, Alpha Analytical
See Presentation Description

The presentation discusses some common issues and questions that are directed at the reported laboratory data when conducting a VI investigation. These include:

Sample Quality: Integrity and performance checks for Air and sub-surface vapor samples. These checks included Shut-in, Leak Check and Water Dam. These are included in some State Guidance documents. Performing these integrity checks effectively provides confidence in Data.

Flow Controllers: How they work and what goes wrong. Setting them up and how site conditions and handling of the flow controllers can affect their performance. It answers common questions starting with: Why did my sample end early?

Matrix inferences: Presentation will discuss some issues with identification and reporting of certain target Analytes. It will also briefly cover some common background compounds and their sources.

An appreciation of these impacts to data quality helps evaluating potential liability when determining the usability of the data for making decisions.

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Analytical challenges associated with per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)

Nathan Eklund, PMP, Pace Analytical Services
See Presentation Description

The emerging nature of PFAS sampling and analysis poses challenges in the ability to provide reliable data and meaningful advice to data users. This presentation will include the available analytical methods for different matrices (water, soil, sludge, etc.) for PFAS analysis. This presentation will also focus on the analytical challenges associated with this contaminant of emerging concern. Challenges include varying methods, compound lists, and differing state and federal standards for PFAS. Finally, a brief overview of the existing educational resources from sources including the National Groundwater Association (NGWA) and the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) will be discussed.

At the conclusion of this education, attendees will have a better understanding of:

  • The analytical challenges associated with PFAS
  • Various methods and compound lists associated with varying matrices
  • State and federal certifications and standards for PFAS
  • Sampling challenges associated with PFAS

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Choosing the Right Metals Stabilization Technology - One Size Does Not Fit All

Bernd Rehm, ReSolution Partners
See Presentation Description

Stabilization of soil and waste to reduce the leachability of metals is a function of site chemistry, remediation objectives and approaches, and reagent chemistry and cost. Selection without thorough evaluation of these factors can lead to failed remediation and increased cost. A series of project examples will explore how:

  • simpler is often better,
  • performance is more than a reagent name,
  • test methods affect reagent performance,
  • full-scale implementation risks can be identified and mitigated, and a site is not "a" site.

Attendees will leave with a better understanding of:

  • How to select stabilization reagents
  • The role that treatability studies can play in the selection process
  • An awareness of variations in performance with commonly used technologies

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Current Source Removal Alternatives From A Contractors View

Brian Delaney, EFS
See Presentation Description

Mass excavation has been a key component of environmental remediation since the at least the 1980's. Excavation has typically be used for unsaturated soil removal technique. Early on, excavation focused on soil cleanup target numbers and typically tied to a groundwater containment or free product recovery approach. As the concept migration from a general soil cleanup target to Migration to Groundwater, Direct Contact, Residential, Industrial, and Site Specific Risk Assessment based numbers; the concepts tied to mass excavation have changed.

Current mass excavation isn't chasing residual levels of contaminants, but rather are focusing on protecting against surface contact, mitigating vapor pathways, protecting groundwater and facilitating redevelopment of previously blighted property.

Throughout the previous 30-40 years, technology and the understanding of the toxicology and behavior of chemicals in the subsurface have also changed. While these changes have impacted the remedial designs developed by Engineers to satisfy Owner(s), Regulators and Stakeholders and subsequently impacted the approach taken by Contractor to ensure that performance metrics are achieved.

While mass excavation still has a purpose and place, many of today's soil source removal techniques are focused and specific. Other techniques to remove the source mass include soil vapor extraction, in-situ thermal, slide rails, shallow soil mixing and slurry trench excavation.

This presentation will focus on the presenters experience during the last 28 years working with these techniques. The presenter will define the applicability and limitations of the technique, identify some hurdles and successes of each and providing a relative understanding of cost, complexity and time required for a contactor to perform the onsite work.

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Eliminating Risk of PFAS Contamination: Low Cost In Situ Remediation with Colloidal Activated Carbon

Scott Wilson, REGENESIS
See Presentation Description

Background:
Colloidal activated carbon is emerging as a low cost in situ method to eliminate the risk associated with PFAS compounds in groundwater. By coating flux zones of an aquifer with colloidal activated carbon a permeable sorption barrier is created in situ, purifying groundwater as it passively migrates. PFAS constituents from up-gradient source zones are rapidly sorbed to the carbon and removed from the mobile dissolved phase. By removing PFAS from the mobile phase, the route of exposure to down-gradient receptors is eliminated, thereby eliminating the down-gradient public health risk associated with PFAS.

Lessons Learned:
Colloidal carbon isotherm, retardation and sorption test data are presented for specific PFAS compounds indicating excellent sorption capability and increased performance with decreasing carbon particle size. The potential for competitive sorption/elution is discussed. Plume modeling is presented indicating longevity of in situ colloidal carbon treatment for PFAS to be on the order of multiple decades before reapplication is required.

Data are presented from a field case site where a single application of colloidal activated carbon resulted in orders of magnitude reduction in PFAS groundwater concentrations to below USEPA health advisory levels. Design considerations for plume management are discussed including amending existing pump & treat systems to reduce project cost and to eliminate down-gradient risk to public health.

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"Emerging" Due Diligence: Research and Reporting to Address Emerging Contaminants

Jeri Massengill, Historical Information Gatherers, Inc
See Presentation Description

Discovering and evaluating environmental risk related to emerging contaminants is a hot topic at U.S. EPA, state agencies and standard organizations like ASTM International. Learn how some professionals have already modified property research methods to address emerging contaminants and hear about recent discussions between ASTM and the U.S. EPA on possible new standards related to PFAS compounds. A summary of proposed changes to historical research requirements in the E1527 Phase I ESA Standard will be included. Stay for the interactive Q & A session addressing emerging contaminants in the due diligence process.

Attendees at the "Emerging" Due Diligence presentation will learn about:

  • Research tips to identify property uses that could result in emerging contaminant impacts.
  • EPA and ASTM plans to address emerging contaminants in the due diligence process.
  • Proposed changes to the E1527 Phase I ESA Standard related to historical data and past property use research.

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Emphasizing LNAPL Remedy Selection CSMs

Andrew Kirkman, BP Remediation Management
See Presentation Description

Multiple remedial technologies exist with few utilized metrics to directly compare their abilities and performance. A discussion will be presented that is inspired by the recent ITRC LNAPL guidance and historical US EPA Environmental Cleanup Best Management Practices: Effective use of the Project Life Cycle Conceptual Site Model, July 2011. The talk will be focused on LNAPL Sites and include discussion of potential approaches to utilizing the CSM combined with leading metrics to improve screening of technologies in the remedy selection process. The discussion will include vapor removal, biodegradation, and LNAPL recovery mechanisms. The discussed leading metrics include LNAPL transmissivity, natural source zone depletion rate measurements, aerobic respiration databases, and vapor removal rates.

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Empirical Study to Estimate the Air Exchange Rate Within a Trench for Modeling Inhalation Risks

Shannon Thompson, 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC
See Presentation Description

Background/Objectives: Human health risk assessments require the evaluation of existing and future exposure pathways and receptors. This often includes an evaluation of construction worker exposure to volatile constituents migrating from contaminated soil and groundwater into a trench ("trench scenario"). Evaluation of the trench scenario can be tied to assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway since many of the same data and analytical techniques may be applied to both. The trench scenario may represent a "worst case scenario" for construction worker exposure since air flow into and out of the trench is limited because the width of the trench is narrower than the depth. The trench scenario can be a human health risk driver, particularly for sites with large contaminant footprints, and often requires the use of institutional or engineered controls to manage risks. Therefore, it is important to develop a methodology for evaluating the trench scenario that more accurately predicts exposure concentrations so that the risks can be better understood and the need for engineered or institutional controls applied more appropriately.

Approach/Activities: While many of the pathways evaluated as part of a human health risk assessment (e.g., direct exposure via dermal absorption or ingestion) have well defined exposure parameters to estimate the exposure concentration and subsequent risk for a receptor, this is not the case for the trench scenario. Many practitioners estimate the inhalation exposure point concentration by combining a vadose zone model to estimate transport of vapors from the source into the trench, with a box model to estimate the exposure point concentration following mixing of the volatile constituents with atmospheric air in the trench. There are two primary assumptions that must be made: (1) the trench dimensions and (2) the air exchange rate within the trench (typically expressed in air changes per hour, or "ACH"). Industry best practices and professional judgement can be employed to constrain the modeled trench dimensions and regulatory agencies have recommended using a default air exchange rate of 2 ACH for trenches that are deeper than they are wide (VDEQ 2016). These default air exchange rates are based on historical studies of air flow between tall buildings in an urban setting but have not been substantiated by measuring actual air exchange within a trench. Therefore, a field study was performed to measure the air exchange rate within a series of trenches to provide more representative default air exchange rates. Trenches were installed over a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) source on a former refinery with no impediments to air movement (e.g., above grade structures in proximity to the trenches). Meteorological data, with an emphasis on wind direction and speed, were continuously monitored throughout the study to understand the relationship of ACH with meteorological factors.

Results/Lessons Learned: The default air exchange rate for trenches of 2 ACH was determined to be overly conservative resulting in gross over estimations of inhalation risks for a construction worker working in a trench. The estimated air exchange rates were between 34 and 79 ACH, with an average of 46 ACH, when relatively low wind speeds (between 3.5 and 7 mph) were present. Use of these empirically derived air exchange rates would be applicable at any site with comparable meteorological conditions and would be conservative for sites with higher average ambient wind speeds.

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Environmental Liability and Insurance Recovery

David L. Guevara, J.D., Ph.D., Taft Stettinius & Hollister LLP
See Presentation Description

This presentation addresses the multifarious ways in which a party may be exposed to environmental liability and how insurance coverage may provide financial support for such liability.

The financial consequence of environmental liability is potentially enormous. Indeed, between 1990 and 2040, the cost of cleaning up environmental contamination is estimated to be between $500 billion and $1 trillion. In the United States, a significant portion of these costs are borne directly by the responsible parties themselves. Individuals, privately held companies, and municipalities annually incur significant environmental-liability costs. The sources of environmental-liability costs are various. The primary source is federal and state environmental statutes and regulations. Intriguingly, the regulations promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency exceed those of the Internal Revenue Service. This modern environmental statutory and regulatory scheme was set in motion in the 1970s. At that time, the United States Congress enacted a wide-ranging set of laws directed towards multitudinous environmental concerns.

This presentation focuses on the most significant of these federal statutes: the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (“CERCLA”). CERCLA identifies four categories of potentially responsible parties who, regardless of fault, must pay to clean up sites contaminated with hazardous substances: (1) current owners or operators of a site where a hazardous substance has been released; (2) past owners or operators of a site at the time hazardous substances were released; (3) any person who arranged for the disposal, transport, or treatment of hazardous substances released at a site; and (4) any person who transports a hazardous substance to a site from which there has been a release. The case law interpreting CERCLA has enlarged this catalog of liable parties to include successor corporations, lessees of current and former owners, corporate officers who were active in site operations, active shareholders, parent corporations, lenders, and trustees. As a consequence of this broad classification of liable parties, many individuals, companies, and municipalities may find that they are responsible for the costs of investigating and remediating contaminated property, which can amount to hundreds of thousands – and even millions – of dollars.

Individuals, corporations, and municipalities can address the risk of environmental liability through insurance. The Exxon Corporation incurred an estimated $2 billion in environmental cleanup costs associated with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound. However, it recovered a significant portion of these environmental liability costs through its insurers. Whether a party who incurs environmental liability costs is a small business or a multi-national corporation, whether the party can maintain solvency upon the incurrence of environmental liability costs is often contingent upon insurance recovery.

Insurance can be an enormous asset to a party confronting a claim against it for environmental liability. This presentation also focuses on the types of insurance that may respond to the vast costs associated with environmental liability and how a liable party may best position itself to obtain insurance coverage to defray such costs.

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Environmental Sequence Stratigraphy of Mid-Town Carmel, Indiana

Dan Kelleher, PG, CIPM, Midwest GeoSciences Group
See Presentation Description

Co-authored by Tim Kemmis, PhD, PG, Midwest GeoSciences Group and Corrie Meyer, Innovative Planning, LLC

Subsurface engineering projects during recent the redevelopment of mid-town Carmel, Indiana have revealed the sedimentary sequence of past geologic history. The sequence of sediments yield multiple origins ranging from stream deposits, subglacial tills to thick intervals of proglacial outwash.

The drilling investigation revealed the stratigraphic sequence consists of from youngest to oldest, Surficial Alluvium, Bedded Trafalgar Formation, Massive Trafalgar Formation, Glaciofluvial Deposits, Massive Pre-Trafalgar Formation, and Bedrock.

Understanding the stratigraphy proved important because it provided the context for understanding the variability and uniformity in soils, physical properties, and groundwater conditions that were essential for successful engineering design and construction. Plus, the drilling strategy helped reduce uncertainty in determining precise geologic unit contacts, thickness, and distribution. Laboratory testing yielded data pertaining to geotechnical, thermal, resistivity, conductivity, corrosivity, and geochemical properties.

Although the process for defining and mapping stratigraphy is a basic premise of geologic principles, the United States Environmental Protection Agency published a 2017 report about the need for understanding basic subsurface characterization titled Environmental Sequence Stratigraphy. The subsurface characterization work in mid-town Carmel followed basic steps for defining and mapping stratigraphy, but the process unraveled the complex stratigraphic sequence derived from different depositional environments coupled with yielding a meaningful geologic framework that will prove valuable for the City of Carmel for many years to come.

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From Screening to Cleaning: How an Improved Understanding of Non-cancer Risk Characterization Can Give New Meaning to the Assessment of, and Response to, TCE and Other Chemicals

Rod Thompason, IUPUI & Ed Pfau, Hull & Associates
See Presentation Description

The regulatory issues surrounding the Reference Concentration (RfC) for trichloroethylene (TCE), which continue to be problematic and unresolved, will be addressed and summarized. The challenges associated with the developmental endpoint for fetal heart malformations will be discussed, along with updates on the status of any additional health effects testing. The divergence in the current regulatory approach toward the cancer and non-cancer endpoints of chemicals, including TCE, will be explored. Regulatory responses to TCE in indoor air have clearly demonstrated the need for a framework to determine the conditions under which exposures above screening levels are not expected to result in adverse effects to a receptor population of interest. There are several approaches (of varying robustness) to assess the safety of exposures above the screening levels. We advocate an improved method for non-cancer risk characterization, gleaning information from the development of the reference level on a chemical-specific basis, thereby assessing the likelihood of human health risks at exposures between the RfC and observed effects. We propose that an improved framework for non-cancer risk characterization be developed in cooperation with state and federal regulators and other stakeholders. This improved framework will enable the development of more useful methodologies for site assessment; the derivation of medium specific concentrations for screening, site-specific closure levels, and expedited response; and communication of the associated risks with the public.

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High Resolution Site Characterization (HRSC) using Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) Technologies: An Adaptive, Real-Time Approach to Identifying and Delineating NAPLs

Randy St. Germain, Dakota Technologies
See Presentation Description

Chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons have contaminated subsurface soils and groundwater at thousands of sites all over the world. Traditional methods of determining the presence and extent of light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination are time consuming and costly, and may not be able to differentiate between contaminant phases. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) employs laser light to excite fluorescent molecules contained in the vast majority of hazardous NAPLs including petroleum fuels/oils, coal tars and creosotes. Additionally, through the use of a new dye-enhanced LIF technique, standard LIF tooling is now used to detect dye-labeled DNAPL chlorinated solvents.

At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendees will understand:

  1. Basic Principles of LIF Technologies & Operation
  2. LIF Data Output and Analysis
  3. LIF Interferences & Limitations
  4. Development of LNAPL Conceptual Site Models with LIF Data

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Horizontal Directional Drilling for Small Site Characterization and Injection Wells

David Bardsley, PG, Directed Technologies Drilling, Inc.
See Presentation Description

Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) technology has been utilized since the late 1980’s for a wide variety of monitoring and remediation activities. Consultants, regulators and site owners can be intimidated with the equipment, nomenclature and perceived high cost of these innovative well installation methods. This presentation will provide an overview of several innovative uses of the technology.

The methodology is particularly useful in urban area for UST and dry cleaner applications. Directionally drilled wells can be installed under complicated surface obstructions; buildings, buried/above ground utilities, roadways, and other infrastructure common in urban areas, without disruption to ongoing site activities.

Refinements in HDD rigs, steering/locating technology and sampling tooling provide consultants, site owners and drillers the ability to use the technology for soil sampling. Benefits include:

  • Small foot print drill rigs
  • Accessing areas under obstructions.
  • Steerable drilling assembly allows for multiple samples from one borehole.
  • Bore entry can be located in areas where overlying formations are not contaminated, minimizing the potential for cross contamination.
  • Reduce crew risk by moving drilling equipment from hazardous locations; busy roadways, ponds and manufacturing-operating units.

Horizontal wells can be an effective tool for emplacement of substrates for remediation activities. However, the most frequent concern among injection experts is “won’t all the injectate come out in the beginning of the well?” By reviewing conservation of mass, friction loss, including losses across individual slots, the well open area (slot pattern) can be designed to insure equal flow rates. In other words, each horizontal injection well has a project specific screen design.

At the conclusion of the presentation attendees will:

  • Understand the technology can be used for for investigation and remediation activities.
  • Soil sampling under surface obstructions is possible using HDD methods.
  • Horizontal injection wells can be designed to deliver an equal flow of injectate along a horizontal screen.

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IDEM / Consultant Partnership to Pilot the Use of High Resolution Site Characterization Tools on ELTF Eligible Petroleum Sites

Brent A. Graves, LPG, SESCO Group; Harold Templin, IDEM; Robyn Raftis, IDEM
See Presentation Description

In late 2016, SESCO Group (SESCO) reached out to the IDEM ELTF and LUST Section Chiefs to ask if they were considering the use of high resolution site characterization (HRSC) tools on ELTF eligible sites as part of their proposed rule changes. After many meetings, conference calls and much internal deliberation on the part of IDEM’s Science Services Branch, in March 2018, IDEM granted approval for SESCO to pilot test HRSC tools at one of their sites in Hebron, IN. In July 2018, SESCO received approval of their Further Site Investigation Work Plan, which proposed the use of an Optical Imaging Profiler (OIP), a Membrane Interface Probe (MIP) and a Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT) to define the vertical and horizontal extents of diesel and gasoline impacts in soil and groundwater. Field activities were implemented on Monday, October 8th. A total of 12 OIP and eight (8) MIP borings were installed with HPT being utilized in all 20 borings. During boring activities, SESCO and IDEM personnel remained in constant communication to discuss findings and determine next steps. On Thursday, October 11th, IDEM determined that delineation of impacts was sufficient and then collaborated with SESCO to select specific locations and depth intervals for the collection of soil samples, and the placement of temporary piezometers for the collection of groundwater samples. Groundwater samples were collected on Friday, October 12th. In the span of one week utilizing HRSC, both parties walked away on the same page regarding the sufficiency of the investigation.

At the conclusion of the presentation, the attendees will:

  • Understand the benefits of HRSC in the site investigation process
  • Have a basic understanding of how the various HRSC tools work and when to use them
  • The importance of working in a collaborative manner with their regulators

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Mitigation of Petroleum Vapor Intrusion using Low-Flow Air Injection

Paul Michalski, 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC
See Presentation Description

Background/Objectives. Migration of volatile constituents from contaminated soil and groundwater into overlying structures, referred to as vapor intrusion, has proven to be a human health risk driver. In some cases, remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater can take years or decades to complete, making it necessary to install mitigation measures to prevent vapor migration and protect human health within overlying structures. One of the most common mitigation techniques is sub-slab depressurization, which involves extracting soil vapor from beneath a structure and venting it to the atmosphere, creating a negative pressure differential across the slab and preventing vapor intrusion into a structure. However, in some instances, operation of a sub-slab depressurization system can draw contaminated vapors from deeper portions of the subsurface directly beneath a building slab. If the sub-slab depressurization system is shutdown, or if there is an upward advective gradient, these vapors can then enter the structure, creating a greater risk to human health than was present prior to installation of the mitigation system. In addition, at sites impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons, it is well understood that aerobic biodegradation has the potential to reduce volatile petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations by several orders of magnitude, as long as the supply of oxygen is not rate limited (DeVaull et al. 1997, Roggemans et al. 2001, Abreu et al. 2009, Michalski et al. 2012). Therefore, to enhance aerobic biodegradation and prevent vapor migration (as observed during operation of sub-slab depressurization systems), a unique low-flow air injection technique was designed and tested within a residential structure where an acute inhalation risk was present due to vapor intrusion of volatile petroleum hydrocarbons.

Approach/Activities. Injection of ambient air had been previously tested beneath a large commercial building on a former refinery resulting in an increase in oxygen concentrations and enhanced aerobic biodegradation directly beneath the building slab (Luo et al. 2013). Ambient air was introduced beneath the commercial building through a large diameter horizontal well. During the current study, ambient air was injected directly beneath the residential structure at flow rates less than 0.5 liter per minute through 0.5-inch diameter by 6-inch long stainless steel sub-slab probes. The probes were installed on 12-foot centers and connected to a pump via a simple manifold and 1/4-inch thick walled flexible tubing. Separate sub-slab probes installed on 12-foot centers were used to monitor oxygen and volatile petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations during injection of ambient air. Indoor air concentrations were also screened routinely to confirm the effectiveness of the mitigation technique.

Results/Lessons Learned. Injection of ambient air at low-flow rates resulted in an increase in oxygen and decrease in petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations across the residential building slab. The concentration of total volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in indoor air also decreased resulting in mitigation of the vapor intrusion pathway. Within one day of startup of the low-flow injection system, the average oxygen concentration increased from 4.6% to 12.1%. The corresponding average total volatile petroleum hydrocarbon concentration decreased from more than 120,000 parts per million by volume (ppmv) to less than 7,100 ppmv. Within one week the average oxygen concentration increased to 19.2% and the average total volatile petroleum hydrocarbon concentration decreased below 100 ppmv. The concentration of total volatile petroleum hydrocarbons in indoor air were reduced below the acute screening level within three days of startup of the low-flow air injection system.

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Performance of a New Activated Carbon Amendment for Bioremediating Petroleum-Impacted Sites

Bret Hicks, Regenesis
See Presentation Description

Background:
The treatment of petroleum contamination using injectable activated carbon amendments is increasing in popularity, in part due to the rate with which drops in contaminant concentrations are usually seen after application. Rapid removal of contamination from groundwater by adsorption is attractive, yet in situ biodegradation is often also needed to properly manage higher contamination levels frequently seen in petroleum sites. Here we present a new activated carbonbased amendment that combines micron-sized activated carbon with nitrate (NO3-) and sulfate (SO42-) added as electron acceptors serving as electron acceptors. As a part of development, the new formulation, PetroFix® Remediation Fluid, was field-tested on a contaminated area downgradient of a former bulk petroleum storage facility in South Bend, IN. Historical remedial efforts included LNAPL recovery and air sparging/soil vapor extraction (AS/SVE), however relatively high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons remained in the groundwater, restricting site closure.

Activities/Results:
PetroFix was injected by low-pressure direct-push methods in an area surrounding a single monitoring well with over 50 ppm total petroleum hydrocarbons in the diesel and gasoline range combined. Groundwater samples were monitored at baseline and at regular intervals postapplication for standard chemical and geochemical parameters, as well as by QuantArray® Petro (Microbial Insights) for quantification of the bacterial communities. Baseline microbial analysis indicated a moderate presence of both aerobic and anaerobic petroleum degraders. At both one- and three-months post-injection, contaminant concentrations had fallen by over 90%. At three months, RNA analysis showed Methylibium petroleiphilum (PM1), a known BTEX degrader, replicating robustly. Another line of evidence for biodegradation was the rapid reduction of NO3- followed by a more gradual loss of SO42-.

Lessons Learned:
The removal of petroleum from the groundwater by adsorption onto the activated carbon does not appear to have a negative effect on biodegradation. Additionally, the conditions in the treatment area appear to be favorable for long-term biodegradation of the remaining hydrocarbons, as indicated by the replicating PM1 community. The results thus far indicate that PetroFix is a powerful amendment capable of treating sites contaminated with moderate amounts of petroleum hydrocarbons. The placement of activated carbon with electron acceptors under low pressure conditions ensures good amendment coverage in the high flux zones where contaminants migrate and promotes biodegradation by the microbial community in place.

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Petroleum Fingerprinting and Environmental Sleuthing Identifies Archeological Contamination Not Associated with Site Activities... Site Achieves Closure saving Millions

Richard H. Christensen, Jr. PhD & Andrea Jesudian, Acuity Environmental Solutions
See Presentation Description

An industrial maintenance facility enrolled in the State’s Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) program following the removal of two 2,000 gallon petroleum USTs. During delineation, additional non-LUST petroleum impacts were identified at the Site. This other portion of the Site was enrolled in the State’s Voluntary Remediation Program (VRP).

Oil skimmers were installed in the new VRP area to access the feasibility of removing the Free Phase Hydrocarbons (FPH). The recovered FPH was extremely viscous and not consistent with expected petroleum impacts associated with an industrial maintenance facility.

High resolution gas chromatography (HRGC), stable isotope analysis (C13) and high resolution mass spectrophotometry (HRMS) indicated there were two source of FPH within the VRP area. Neither source being connected to historical maintenance activities.

Potential remediation strategies were developed ranging from $180,000 for MNA to $3.2M for source area removal.

Investigation of archeological records and historical aerial photographs identified a region-wide source of contamination resulting from fill activities conducted pre-1958 during efforts to fill swampy back-dunal areas associated with dune and swale deposits in the NW Indiana region.

The State concurred and the Site was closed with an ERC on the property. The State issued a “Covenant Not-to-Sue”, signed by the Governor.

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Petroleum Forensics: When Standard Methodology Isn't Enough

Joshua Richards, PG, CHM, Pace Analytical Energy Services
See Presentation Description

Utilizing environmental forensics for source determination and times of release has been instrumental in tuning remediation activities for site closures and determining proper responsible parties. When applied to the investigation of petroleum products, forensic analysis is useful for proper hydrocarbon characterization, providing methodology for age constraints of release, and differentiating of potential sources. This information coupled with other site information, can provide valuable tools for obtaining scientifically supported, court admissible, evidence in environmental legal disputes saving time and the increasing costs of remediation..

At the conclusion of this education, attendees will know/be able to/understand is how petroleum is characterized, potential pitfalls in dealing with petroleum forensics, and how to better understand the data.

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PFAS - the Ubiquitous Suite of Emerging Contaminants

Lawrence L. Fieber, PG, Burns & McDonnell
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Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), a suite of compounds widely used throughout the world, have been found in soil, groundwater and surface water. Water supplies of millions of US citizens contain measurable PFAS. Every week, we see another news article about PFAs.

The objective of this presentation is to provide a solid overview of the PFAS issue by providing an overview of typical uses of PFAS containing materials, summarizing the compounds included in the PFAS suite and challenges of investigating and remediating PFAS affected sites, and presenting the regulatory history and current status.

At the end of this educational presentation, attendees will understand what are PFAS, what materials commonly contained PFAS, how regulators are addressing these substances, and some of the key challenges facing investigative and remediation professionals.

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PFAS Remediation Using Active Treatment Technology

Jim Olsta, P.E., HUESKER Inc.
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Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) are man-made compounds, some of which are toxic at relatively low concentrations, persistent in the environment and bioaccumulative in humans. Many of the sites of most concern are active/former military bases and commercial airports which conducted jet fuel fire-fighting exercises using aqueous fire-fighting foam (AFFF). Laboratory bench scale trials and pilot projects have shown that certain types of activated carbon and ion exchange resins are effective at removing PFAS compounds from water. For groundwater remediation, these sorbents can used in pump and treat vessels, permeable reactive barrier walls and sediment caps.

The three most important things that attendees will take away from this presentation are:

  1. What is PFAS, what are its risks and where is it likely to be a concern?
  2. What is the effectiveness of various current treatment technologies?
  3. How can these treatment technologies be deployed?

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Preferential Pathways in Vapor Intrusion Investigations

Aaron Friedrich, ERM
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The evaluation of atypical preferential pathways, such as subsurface sewers, presents a significant challenge when developing the vapor intrusion (VI) conceptual site model (CSM). While most preferential pathway assessments include an evaluation of vapor or groundwater migrating preferentially in higher permeability strata around the outside of a sewer, there is very little understanding on the methods necessary to evaluate potential exposure risks resulting from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) migrating inside a sewer. Preferential pathways, including the sewer gas to indoor air pathway presented here, are an emerging pathway of concern for VI. At sites where VOC contamination is intersection or near subsurface sewers, there is an increased attention on completing an adequate pathway assessment for potential contaminant migration.

As such, the objective of this presentation is to i) present a generalized sampling approach for the sewer gas to indoor air pathway using site-specific data and ii) present the screening data and criteria at known sites where VOC-impacted groundwater is infiltrating a sewer. The CSM development tools and investigation approaches will be presented on how we determined that the source of VI in off-site structures was vapors migrating within subsurface sewers and entering the structures. Attendees will learn about i) the mechanisms that influence VOC migration within sewers, ii) the sampling approaches used to evaluate the pathway, and iii) a decision-making framework leading to remediation. To support this presentation, a case study demonstrating these aspects as well as a presentation of the final remedy, a sewer abandonment and rerouting effort, will be presented. Post-abandonment sewer gas, sewer water, sub-slab, and indoor air data will also be presented to summarize remedy effectiveness.

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Rapid Chlorinated Solvent Remediation in Groundwater

Steven P. Sittler, P.G., Patriot Engineering & Environmental Inc.
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This presentation will include an evaluation of performance data from multiple sites where enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) injections were utilized to rapidly reduce chlorinated volatile organic compound (cVOC) concentrations in groundwater and achieve site closure. At each site, an electron donor/bioaugmentation co-application strategy was successfully implemented, and a discussion on the consistent strategy for success at these sites will be shared. Specific site challenges, conceptual site model development, baseline analysis and injection design, and field implementation will be discussed in detail.

ERD involves co-application of controlled-release electron donors and bioaugmentation cultures of dehalococcoides (DHC), resulting in rapid reduction of PCE/TCE concentrations in groundwater. Sustained reductive dechlorination of daughter products such as cis-1,2-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride) subsequently occurs due to the action of the slow release electron donor along with the increased degradation rates afforded by direct injection of a microbial culture.

The sustained success of this ERD strategy will be highlighted via data from multiple sites showing complete PCE/TCE reduction within 3 to 12 months, followed by sustained reduction of daughter products. A lessons-learned section will be presented which provides details of how to quickly recognize when focused supplemental injections are warranted to reduce the time to cleanup goal attainment and avoid unnecessary monitoring. In addition, a comprehensive cost analysis with comparison to other traditional remediation technologies will be presented.

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Rapid Site Characterization of a Chlorinated Solvent Plume using high resolution technology and GIS based online tools

Jennifer Williams, AECOM
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In January 2017, Norfolk Southern Corporation (NSC) was notified by the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) of a potential environmental liability regarding a release or a threat of hazardous substances has occurred at the Site. A third party Phase II Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) identified tetrachloroethylene (PCE) and trichloroethylene (TCE) in soil and groundwater at the Site.

NSC operations at the site are known to have been minimal and incomplete information was known about potential leaseholder operations on the property. The Phase II ESA (2013) concluded that the suspected source of the volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination was related to on-site activities. However, multiple public reports identified adjacent properties with groundwater contamination and chlorinated solvents detected in monitoring wells surrounding the Site.

From July 2017 to December 2017, NSC conducted site characterization to further evaluate the distribution of dissolved-phase Constituents of Interest (COI) and potential associated exposure risks. A multi-phase approach was completed to define the extent of affected groundwater downgradient of the Site and surrounding offsite properties. In the first phase, screening was completed using the membrane interface probe-hydraulic profiling tool (MiHpt) to provide real-time evaluation of the relative distribution of VOCs in the vadose and saturated zones and an estimation of the hydraulic properties of soil material throughout the apparent affected zones. During the second phase ‘hot spots’ (as identified during the first phase) were evaluated further using grab sampling via direct-push methods and on-site analysis via mobile laboratory to determine the identifications, concentrations and distribution of specific COI. These high-resolution site characterization data were loaded into COLUMBIA Technologies’ SmartData Solutions® decision support system to enable real-time, GIS-supported collaboration as the fieldwork progressed. During the third phase, soil borings and monitoring wells were completed at locations selected based on preceding screening data. Soil and groundwater monitoring were completed to confirm the nature and extent of affected soil and groundwater verify the conceptual site model and evaluate potential exposure risks. This approach allowed for the average 2 year field preparation and investigation program to be completed within 6 months.

  1. Attendees will be able to understand how LLMiHpt tool can provide real-time evaluation of VOC distribution
  2. Attendees will be able to understand how to use GIS based online tools to make real time field decisions
  3. At the conclusion of this education, attendees will be able to understand technology options while working with the community and agency

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Sampling Groundwater for Hexavalent Chromium - Is It There or Did Improper Sampling Methods Generate It?

David Beck, Tetra Tech
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In this presentation, a case study involving a former chrome plating operation with impacted groundwater and a nearby potable well showing a detectable concentration of hexavalent chromium due to using improper sampling procedures will be discussed. The basic geochemical conditions that resulted in hexavalent chromium being generated by improper sampling will also be described. Sampling and preservation procedures recommended by various laboratories based on their interpretation of the USEPA analytical method will also be presented, as well as challenges the various procedures present and lessons learned as part of this project. No specific consulting firms or laboratories will be discussed as part of the presentation.

In this presentation, attendees will learn how to:

  • Understand how chromium geochemistry can be affected by sampling.
  • Understand the variability of sampling methodology for USEPA Method 7199.
  • Take away key lessons learned for hexavalent chromium sampling in groundwater projects.

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Scale Appropriate LNAPL Investigations Tools

John Sohl, Columbia Technologies
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A critical step in minimizing risk, reducing costs, and closing recalcitrant UST and LUST sites combines proper assessment of residual hydrocarbons and the impact of soil behavior on petroleum storage and transmissivity. Historically, addressing LNAPL problems at complex sites has been both challenging and expensive. During this presentation, the author will discuss best-practice use of advanced technologies that address these challenges through high resolution mapping of LNAPL and soil permeability to improve the confidence of decision makers. He will discuss case studies including LNAPL distribution assumptions and how proper data on LNAPL and permeability can be used to develop an effective conceptual site model, leading to more cost-effective site closures.

At the conclusion of this presentation, attendees will:

  1. Understand the importance of using a scale-appropriate approach to manage LNAPL investigations,
  2. Be able to describe the appropriate use of advanced technologies for achieving high resolution contaminant and matrix data, and
  3. Be able to determine the appropriate application of advanced technologies for their own LNAPL sites to advance cost effective site closure.

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Soil Gas Control Systems in New Construction

Kyle Hoylman, Protect Environmental
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The new construction process provides an opportunity to apply soil gas control strategies to minimize or prevent vapor intrusion (VI) in buildings. The concept of constructing vapor safe buildings has emerged as an effective method for addressing vapor encroachment concerns in real estate transactions and providing a mechanism for effective long-term risk and liability management. The objective of this presentation is to:

  1. Provide an overview of the new construction design process utilizing the standard Soil Gas Control Systems in New Construction of Buildings (ANSI CC-1000, 2018).
  2. Detail the components of a soil gas control system - design requirements, options and credits; recommended inspections and required performance verification; and, component material options.
  3. Present a case study of a new construction project in Indianapolis, IN where vapor safe building practices are being utilized to address vapor encroachment concerns and VI potential.
  4. Detail post-construction verification procedures and activation of the soil gas control system, if required.
  5. Discuss development of the ongoing operation, maintenance and monitoring program plan to meet long-term stewardship obligations for effective liability management.

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Stop hitting underground utilities on your job sites!

Matthew Dragon, GPRS
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According the Common Ground Alliance, (CGA) the reported cost of damages in the last 20 years caused by improperly located or not located subsurface utilities has reached $1.7 billion, resulted in 1,906 injuries and 421 fatalities

This presentation describes the underground utility market segments, 811/One Call, the private utility location contractor, and the SUE Level contractors. Focus will be given to the nondestructive private utility contractor specifically working in environmental applications.

The presentation will detail the technologies available to the private contractor, recent advancements in GPR, and the requirements on site that result in the best underground investigation results.

  1. What will the environmental professional get from each level of location market segment? Is it of value?
  2. Capabilities and limitations of underground utility location technologies.
  3. Usable Site Investigation SOP that holds the private utility contractor accountable.

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TCE Toxicity Battlefield During 2018 - New Challenges, Risk Management Strategies, and Toxic Tort litigation

David Gillay, Barnes & Thornburg
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The war rages on in connection with risk-based decisions surrounding potential non-cancer endpoints for TCE. Trump’s EPA and recent appointments heighten public scrutiny on this ubiquitous chemical. Nationally, many science and science policy efforts are underway attempting to implement effective regulation of these endpoints. These efforts have illustrated the need for an enhanced understanding of non-cancer toxicological assessment, exposure quantification and non-cancer risk characterization for purposes of risk management. For example, the practical application of non-cancer risk assessment science is being explored through a national effort to characterize a key aspect of U.S. EPA’s Reference Concentration for TCE that includes “up to an order of magnitude uncertainty,” which might define a “range” of acceptable remedial risk levels for risk management decisions. Efforts are also underway to verify the findings of the Johnson et al. (2001) study and to determine the implications of this study in the context of the existing non-cancer toxicology database. These efforts may more fully characterize the potential risk of fetal heart malformations, or confirm other studies that do not show this effect, through inhalation exposures to TCE in ambient air under different exposure scenarios. This presentation will summarize these efforts and suggest strategies to manage risk, liability, and exposure.

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The Importance of Working with Regulatory Agencies for Cost-Effective, Ex Situ Stabilization of Heavy Metals

Chuck Hornaday, Vadose Remediation Technologies
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This presentation will provide a project case study for a heavy metal impacted site. Further the presentation will review the regulatory framework that governed the site, and the importance of working with your agency for the most beneficial outcome in terms of project schedule, cost and protection. Finally, the presentation will presentation will be provided in a problem/solution format, providing the solution that resulted in a successful project outcome.

A developer near Detroit, MI wanted to redevelop a property with an ideal location and ready access to freeways as a freezer and cold storage warehouse. The only problem was the site was historically operated as a junk yard. High levels of lead contamination were identified over a large portion of the site, presumed to be associated with the areas where lead-acid batteries were crushed inside cars and left to drain. Furthermore, results of toxicity testing (TCLP) exceeded the threshold of 5mg/L of lead indicated that a large portion of the site was contaminated with lead at levels that were characteristically hazardous (D008). Measures were taken to limit the amount of potentially characteristically hazardous waste and incorporated into the foundation design and soil management plan, and a site redevelopment plan was submitted to the state through the Brownfields program. Some soil was disposed off-site as D008 waste at great expense, but when a significant area required excavation for structural reasons, the project viability was threatened due to the mounting soil disposal costs. The consulting engineer reviewed options and found that if regulatory approval could be obtained to treat the soil ex-situ with a heavy metal stabilization reagent and then dispose of the soil as non-hazardous waste, they could save approximately $1.2 million over hazardous waste disposal.

The consulting engineer worked with the state environmental agency (MI DEQ) to explore the applicable rules and regulations. The goal was to determine if a regulatory option existed to get an exemption from a required RCRA permit to treat the soils ex-situ. Obtaining a RCRA permit was not viable because of the construction schedule. Also, the higher hazardous waste disposal fees would ruin the viability of the project. The process was further constrained by the required strict adherence to the construction schedule.

Although in-situ treatment of characteristically hazardous soils is a permit-exempt activity under RCRA, the ability to treat the soils ex-situ was more regulatory complex in MI. The consultant worked with the MI DEQ to utilize an exemption to the RCRA permit requirement, allowing for ex-situ soil treatment on-site. This exemption was applicable because the corrective action plan had been submitted to the agency through the state Brownfield redevelopment program. The regulatory approval allowed the less expensive ex-situ on-site soil treatment alternative to move forward. The environmental consultant worked with a vendor to determine which product and at what dose rate would be most effective.

State regulations regarding the on-site treatment of characteristically hazardous waste can vary. It is important to engage with the appropriate agency early and often to fully understand potential options. The existence of multiple state programs may provide circumstances that vary from the typical project requirements. The direct disposal of characteristically hazardous waste is expensive and was able to be avoided for this project due to a good understanding of the regulations, and open discussion with the agency. Heavy metal stabilization is a viable option to render characteristically hazardous waste as non-hazardous by treating it on site either in-situ or ex-situ. For this project, the treatment was a success and resulted in project savings of approximately $1.2 million.

The objective of this presentation is to provide the audience with lessons about reviewing regulatory requirements for their site, and the importance of working together with the governing agencies to the meet regulatory requirements. In this case study the consulting engineer found that by working closely with the agency he was able to implement a cost-effective solution. A final objective is to educate the audience in the availability of technologies that are able to render lead contaminated soils as non-hazardous.

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Vapor Intrusion at the Midwest School, Midwest, Wyoming

Stephen Foster, Geosyntec Consultants
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The town of Midwest sits on high ground above Salt Creek, in the middle of the Salt Creek Oil Field, an oval-shaped piece of central Wyoming 10 miles long and five miles wide. Oil extraction started in 1889 and the town was booming. The crude oil was piped to Casper, where it was refined into gasoline and other products. The field is in tertiary extraction and operated by an oil company who uses carbon dioxide (CO2) to extract oil. A leak originating from a ruptured abandoned historical oil well near the Midwest School resulted in CO2 flooding into the school carrying VOCs requiring evacuation. CO2 concentrations in the school were in excess of short-term occupational health guidelines, oxygen was considered deficient, which the Natrona County Health Department (NCHD) and ATSDR considered hazardous to human health. Displaced students were bussed 45 minutes away to the nearest available school in Casper, WY, an untenable situation for children, parents and the Natrona County School District #1 (NCSD), who hired Geosyntec to help them reopen the Midwest School.

Geosyntec evaluated the situation and proposed a multi-disciplinary team to implement a sub-slab depressurization system for the school to leave it independently isolated from any gas/vapor releases, and to address technical and human health risk assessment support to the NCSD. Experts included, public health/human health risk assessment, vapor mitigation and construction, CO2 and VOC monitoring and public meeting/communications. This paper will present details of this unique VI project and the associated risk assessment, human health issues, and interagency regulatory issues on the project. Including:

  • Developing strategies that solves rather than studies the problem.
  • Work with the School District, Health Department, ATSDR and WDEQ to show the strategy will meet the wide variety of regulatory and agency goals.
  • A process to convert the strategy to an implementable work plan, with a schedule, that clearly states goals and timeframes.
  • Establish goals, in this case for CO2 and petroleum VOCs, that are protective, measurable, implementable and include provisions for background and human influenced situations.

As the project developed the School District and the oil company retained Geosyntec to implement the vapor mitigation and monitoring systems, and to work with the Health Department and ATSDR to show compliance with the health protective goals.

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Vapor Intrusion Risk Assessment: Considering building-specific features and weather conditions

Elham Shirazi, University of Kentucky
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Existing vapor intrusion modeling approaches, although extensively used and published, lacks sophistication to directly calculate building pressures and air exchange rates. Consequently, vapor intrusion modeling has focused predominantly on subsurface domains. This presentation will illustrate a new modeling approach that combines flow in three domains: indoor air, atmospheric air and subsurface soil gas. The modelling approach accounts for building-specific features and weather conditions to determine air exchange rates, indoor air pressures and contaminant concentrations in the soil gas and indoor air. It is advantageous over previous vapor intrusion models because it incorporates information known to influence indoor air exposure risks.

At the conclusion of this presentation attendees will:

  • understand the importance of quantitatively accounting for aboveground and below ground processes that control vapor intrusion exposure risks;
  • be able to describe the importance of wind and stack effects on building air exchange rate and building pressure;
  • recognize several factors that can influence indoor air concentration variability

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Why the US EPA is Promoting the Collection of Time-Integrated, Passive Indoor Air Samples for Vapor Intrusion Risk Assessments

Harry O’Neill, Beacon Environmental Services
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When determining health risks from vapor intrusion, indoor air samples are often collected over 24 hour periods; however, research completed has determined that the temporal variability of indoor air contaminant concentrations from vapor intrusion can vary by orders of magnitude over time and that short duration samples collected over 24 hours are likely to produce results that do not represent actual potential health risks. The US EPA notes in the OSWER VI Guidance Document (2015) that longer collection periods are expected to yield a more reliable basis for estimating both time-average long-term and short-term exposure than a one-day sample.1

At the conclusion of this presentation, attendees will understand why the US EPA and other agencies are promoting the use of time-integrated sampling to provide average concentrations with an easy-to-use method that produces quality data with demonstrated high levels of accuracy and precision.

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Presenter Biographies:


Drew Baird, FRx, Inc

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Drew Baird has 17 years' experience in remediation design and implementation, project and team management, field support services, and environmental consulting. He is currently Senior Geologist at FRx, where he leads the company's business development efforts and provides technical support on soil and groundwater remediation projects to clients in the US and Canada. Prior to joining FRx, Drew was the East Region Manager at REGENESIS, where he was responsible for managing sales and technical support associated with the company's remediation products in the southeastern US. Drew spent his first 5 years in the industry with regional engineering firm Rogers & Callcott Environmental. Drew is based in Charlotte, NC

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David Bardsley, PG, Directed Technologies Drilling, Inc.

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Mr. Bardsley has over thirty-four years of environmental drilling industry experience, thirteen of which have been focused on horizontal environmental wells. David has a Bachelor of Science degree in Geology & Geophysics along with a Communications Minor (1984) from the University of Missouri-Rolla. He is a licensed well driller in Texas, Arizona and Louisiana and holds RG/PG certifications in Texas, Missouri, Louisiana and Tennessee.

Mr. Bardsley has authored/co-authored over twenty papers on horizontal environmental drilling methodology and was an early leader in the use of horizontal drilling to solve environmental challenges. He has spent significant time in the field and has been directly involved with the design and field installation of over 100,000' of horizontal remediation wells.

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Brian Delaney, Environmental Field Services

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Delaney is a 28 year veteran of the environmental remediation industry. Delaney’s career has taken him from work on a USEPA Technical Assistance Team (TAT) contract participating in Removal Actions at USEPA Superfund Sites, to managing projects and opening a branch consulting office, to developing a territory from $1m to $13M, to managing a remediation company from $20M to $50M growth, to owning a startup remediation and demolition company and focusing on strategic accounts/projects at EFS.

Delaney’s experiences have included several USEPA Superfund sites; purchase, remediation & demolition of a 285 acre steel mill; large remedial projects at some of Indiana’s largest PCB sites; remediation at former manufactured gas plant (fMGP) sites; demolition and site cleanup of a large lead smelter; and, demolition and remediation at the Ertel site to name a few. Delaney is a “go to” resource for waste related issues and remedial approach.

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Matthew Dragon, GPRS

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Matthew Dragon is the vision behind sales and marketing efforts at GPRS the largest private utility location company in the US. With a passion for building his team Matt has created a sales focused culture centered around GPRS's commitment to customer service. Matthew has served on the Board of Directors for the Concrete Sawing and Drilling Association and has published multiple articles in the CSDA's trade magazine, “Concrete Openings”, regarding the best practices associated with the applications of ground penetrating RADAR. Matthew's experience includes prior sales and management roles with the two top manufacturers of GPR equipment and several capital equipment sales positions. Matthew attended the University of NH, Mechanical Engineering.

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Nathan Eklund, PMP, Pace Analytical Services

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Nathan Eklund, PMP is in his seventh year as the Program Manager for the Pace Analytical Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Laboratory located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The POPs Lab is part of the Specialty Analytical Services (SAS) Group at Pace Analytical. The POPs Laboratory specializes in the following analysis: dioxin/furans, PCB congeners, PFAS, PBDEs, high-resolution pesticides, and alkylated PAHs. Mr. Eklund has a Bachelor of Science degree in hydrogeology and has over 22 years of professional experience as a program manager, project manager, and hydrogeologist for the environmental consulting and environmental testing industries. Mr. Eklund's technical experience spans across all environmental disciplines including: site investigation and remediation, water resources, environmental management information systems, geophysical munitions response, compliance, plans and permitting, and site assessments.

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Wil Elcoate, Alpha Analytical

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Mr. Will Elcoate is a National Air Account Manager for the Air Program for Alpha Analytical Laboratories. He has over 25 years of experience in the Environmental Laboratory testing Industry and is the lead for Alpha's Air Program. Will graduated from Bath University, UK with a BSc. in Chemistry and before starting in the environmental testing industry worked as a Chemist in the copper mines in Zambia. Upon arriving on the East Coast he worked for 10 years in the Industrial water treatment industry as a product development & technology scientist. On joining an Environmental testing laboratory industry he has held a number of operational, technical and client service positions.

Will's current responsibilities include the technical and regulatory support for Alpha's Air program. In that capacity, he stays in touch with State & Federal regulations, rules and guidance for air programs and works with Alpha's Air Laboratory operations to develop capabilities and services to support emerging needs. He provides technical training and market support for the Alpha's Air clients and has spoken at numerous conferences across the USA.

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Lawrence L. Fieber, PG, Burns & McDonnell

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Lawrence Fieber is a Principal of the Environmental Group of Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, Inc. where he has practiced since 1999. Lawrence is a licensed professional geologist in Illinois and Indiana.

Lawrence has 35 years of consulting experience and currently leads the delivery of environmental services to transportation and industrial sectors at Burns & McDonnell. He has extensive experience helping clients identify and understand their environmental liabilities for owned, leased and legacy facilities.

Mr. Fieber is a nationally recognized leader in the environmental and geological communities. He is a former officer and board member of the Lake Michigan States Section of the Air and Waste Management Association, the past president of the Illinois-Indiana Section of the American Institute of Professional Geologists, and currently serves on the University of Illinois Geology Department Alumni Advisory Board and The Board of Advisors for the MS in Sustainable Management Program of DePaul University.

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Aaron Friedrich, M.S., L.P.G., ERM

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Mr. Friedrich has over 15 years of experience with the US EPA and state-led regulatory programs, project management, and technical expertise with a strong emphasis in complex site investigation activities, soil and groundwater investigations and remediation, and vapor intrusion (VI) pathway assessments and mitigation. Mr. Friedrich has been involved with environmental investigation and remediation projects across the U.S., Canada and in Europe. Mr. Friedrich is a technical resource for complex site investigation and remediation including the evaluation of soil and groundwater contamination at industrial and commercial properties impacted by both chlorinated and petroleum hydrocarbons and metals. He has significant experience under the U.S. EPA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) programs as well as the Indiana Department of Environmental Management (IDEM) and the various environmental programs therein such as the Voluntary Remediation Program (VRP) and State Cleanup Program (SCP).

Mr. Friedrich is a senior technical resource in ERM’s VI Technical Focus Group focusing on assessing and managing residential and industrial VI investigation and mitigation activities. Mr. Friedrich has extensive experience using U.S. EPA’s recommended multiple lines of evidence (MLE) approach for evaluating VI, including the collection and interpretation of exterior soil gas, sub-slab soil gas and indoor air sampling analytical data. He has designed and/or managed the installation of over 100 residential sub-slab depressurization (SSD) systems and numerous large scale commercial/industrial SSD systems. He has been involved in highly sensitive VI cases including multi-home residential areas, daycares, and senior living communities.

Currently, Mr. Friedrich serves as the President of the Midwestern States Environmental Consultants Association (MSECA). He has also participated in the Interstate Technology & Regulatory Council (ITRC) teams developing guidance on petroleum VI, Remediation Management of Complex Sites, and the Institutional Controls teams.

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David Gillay, Barnes & Thornburg

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David Gillay is a partner in the Indianapolis office of Barnes & Thornburg. He heads the Remediation, Redevelopment, and Environmental Transactional Practice Groups and provides environmental counseling in connection with assessing environmentally challenged properties. Over the last seventeen years, David has focused on the legal, regulatory, and technical impact and implications related to the vapor intrusion pathway and potential long term stewardship obligations related to environmentally challenged properties. He also represents an influential multi-state environmental consultants' association and works closely with leading technical experts on a wide array of environmental matters, including rapidly evolving vapor intrusion guidance and changes to toxicity for TCE, PCE, and other contaminants. Prior to joining Barnes & Thornburg, he obtained an advanced environmental engineering degree and practiced as an environmental consultant on various projects across the country.

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David L. Guevara, J.D., Ph.D., Taft Stettinius & Hollister LLP

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David concentrates his practice in complex environmental, litigation, and insurance law matters. He is chair of the firm's Brownfield and Site Development practice area. David's legal publications include two books: Environmental Liability and Insurance Recovery (ABA Publishing 2012) and The Bona Fide Prospective Purchaser Defense to CERCLA Liability (ABA Publishing 2013). He is also the author of "The Application and Regulation of Institutional Controls in Indiana" in Implementing Institutional Controls at Brownfields and Other Contaminated Sites (ABA Publishing 2012). David's clients include corporations, municipalities, real estate development firms, and individuals each of whom are exposed to some form of, or seek to avoid, legal liability. When David's clients are exposed to legal liability, he also assists in the recovery of insurance to offset the costs of such legal liability.

David attended the University of Notre Dame Law School where he was the recipient of the Graham Law Fellowship. While at Notre Dame, David received a Dean's Award for achieving the highest grade in Trial Advocacy and was Editor-in-Chief of The Journal of College and University Law. He holds a Ph.D. in philosophy and has taught philosophy and world religions courses at several colleges and universities. David was named an Super Lawyer for Environmental Law in 2012 - 2016 and was featured in the article "Hell, Belief and Brownfields," which was published in the 2014 Indiana Super Lawyers magazine. David has also been recognized in Chambers USA Best Lawyers for Environmental Law in 2014 - 2018. Similarly, David is listed in Best Lawyers in America® for Litigation-Environmental for 2019.

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Brent A. Graves, LPG, SESCO Group

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Brent A. Graves, LPG is Chief Operating Officer of SESCO Group and has been an environmental consultant for 30-years specializing in site investigation, remediation and monitoring. He earned a Bachelor's Degree in Geology from IUPUI and is currently the President-Elect of the Midwestern States Environmental Consultants Association.

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Brett Hicks, Regenesis

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Mr. Hicks has over ten years of experience in the environmental field in the areas of site investigation, project management, risk assessment and technical assistance. He received his undergraduate degree in biology from Ball State University. Mr. Hicks currently serves as the Ohio Valley District Manager with Regenesis, where he provides technical support for the design and application of soil and groundwater remediation and vapor intrusion mitigation technology solutions. Mr. Hicks works directly with environmental consulting, construction, and engineering firms to develop successful remedial approaches by offering design, application, and performance review expertise for in situ-applied remedial strategies across a broad spectrum of technology classes.

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Chuck Hornaday, Vadose Remediation Technologies

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Chuck is the president of Vadose Remediation Technologies a Midwestern United States based company and provider of technologies for the remediation of contaminated soil, groundwater and sediments. Chuck has over 25 years of experience in the environmental field and has developed a keen understanding of relevant technologies. He is a geologist with a BS degree from the University of Wisconsin Madison and has authored numerous papers on topics including sediment remediation, mine reclamation, thermal remediation.

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Dan Kelleher, PG, CIPM, Midwest GeoSciences Group

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Dan Kelleher, PG, CIPM, is a hydrogeologist and the President of Midwest GeoSciences Group. Dan brings experts together from across a spectrum of geoscience, environmental, and engineering disciplines for producing educational experiences such as courses and webinars, creating field tools, and providing consulting services for the most sensitive projects.

Dan's consulting work focuses on the technical areas of quantitative hydrogeology (in porous and fractured media), geotechnical analysis of sedimentary sequences, aquifer testing, fractured rock hydrogeology, and predictive ground water modeling. Dan's business acumen promotes personal trust, integrity, and relentless QA/QC.

Dan received his bachelor's degree in geology from Monmouth College and his master's degree in hydrogeology from Northern Illinois University. He started his career at Waste Management headquarters in Oak Brook, Illinois and began testing geologic concepts about sedimentary processes during large-scale excavation and fill design, environmental and geotechnical investigations, ground water monitoring system design.

Midwest GeoSciences Group allows Dan to help people not only be better scientists and engineers, but also become better people. It is a privilege to bring people together for different purposes ranging from field tool development to engineering advances to environmental regulation input. Dan is motivated by serving others in order to fulfill our human purpose and achieve responsible global stewardship.

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Andrew Kirkman, BP Remediation Management

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Andrew Kirkman has presented at conferences consistently over his 20 year career. Andrew was previously a trainer for ASTM International on the LNAPL Transmissivity Standard E2856-13, has been an ITRC LNAPL trainer for the past 6 years, as well as provided LNAPL related training for the States of Virginia, Colorado, Missouri and Minnesota. Most recently Andrew worked with the USEPA OUST and John Sohl of Columbia Technologies to deliver a workshop at the NEWIPCC 2018 Tanks conference on High Resolution Site Characterization. Andrew's career started doing field work including groundwater sampling, well installation, and hydrocarbon field investigations at railroad, pipeline, manufactured gas plant, and tie treatment plant sites. Continued development resulted in Andrew leading the ASTM LNAPL Transmissivity standard and he is currently BP's lead LNAPL technical specialist. In this role he has worked to further refine a robust understanding of data collection and analysis challenges and conceptual model development for improved remedy selection and implementation.

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Jeri Massengill, Historical Information Gatherers, Inc

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Jeri Massengill is CEO and co-owner of Minneapolis based Historical Information Gatherers. HIG is a provider of current environmental data and historical documentation used to identify past property uses and assess environmental risk. Jeri is a former environmental consultant experienced in environmental due diligence, brownfield redevelopment and historical property use research. She is an active member of several professional organizations including the American Institute of Professional Geologists (AIPG), the National Network of Commercial Real Estate Women and she currently serves as the chair of the ASTM E50.o2 Subcommittee that develops property assessment standards used widely by commercial real estate professionals. Jeri holds degrees in Geology and Environmental Studies from Macalester College in St. Paul, Minnesota.

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Paul Michalski, 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC

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Paul is a Senior Hydrogeologist and cofounder of 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC. Paul earned a Bachelor of Science in Geology from Colorado State University in 1997. Paul has been intimately associated with projects with significant public interest including several sites engaged in class action lawsuits. Paul possesses demonstrated expertise in assessment of the vapor intrusion pathway at both petroleum and chlorinated release sites. This has included evaluation at private sector, federal, and municipal project sites for nearly two decades. Paul has been at the forefront of research aimed at assessing and mitigating the vapor intrusion pathway, measuring inhalation risks, and quantifying natural source zone depletion rates at petroleum release sites. This has included research with multiple university partners, as well as independent research including development of field methods, completion of bench scale studies, and execution of multi-year field assessments.

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Jim Olsta, P.E., HUESKER Inc.

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Mr. Olsta has a Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering and a Master of Science in Environmental Engineering from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He is a registered Professional Engineer in Illinois and has been working on remediation projects for 30 years. Jim is a member of ASTM International and is the task group leader on Soil & Groundwater Remediation Technologies. He holds several patents on environmental products and has co-authored numerous papers in environmental journals.

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Harry O'Neill, Beacon Environmental Services

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Harry O'Neill is the President of Beacon Environmental Services and has managed soil gas and vapor intrusion investigations for more than 25 years, working on federal, state, and commercial projects throughout the United States, as well as internationally across six continents. Harry has been on the forefront of the acceptance of passive sampling technologies at the national and international level, working with regulators, as well as multiple universities on research projects, and has managed the implementation of thousands of soil gas and air sampling surveys. He is a member of AWMA, ITRC, and ASTM; is the lead author of ASTM Standard D7758: Standard Practice for Passive Soil Gas Sampling in the Vadose Zone; and has published and presented findings throughout the United States, as well as internationally as an invited speaker, most recently in Israel and Brazil.

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Ed Pfau, Hull & Associates

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Ed Pfau is a Principal Scientist with Hull & Associates in Dublin, Ohio. He has more than 20 years of experience in environmental toxicology and environmental risk assessment. He prepares and reviews human health and ecological risk assessments for brownfields, hazardous waste management units, Superfund sites, and other sites where hazardous substances or petroleum pose a potential or known environmental or regulatory concern. He conducts environmental fate and eco-toxicological evaluations as part of chemical safety assessments prepared to meet registration requirements for chemical manufacturers in the United States and Europe. He also works with public water systems to assist in the assessment of harmful algal blooms in water supplies and of lead in drinking water distribution systems. Before joining Hull, Ed was a senior toxicologist and risk assessor for the Ohio EPA, where he was responsible for rules development, technical guidance and critical review and approval of risk assessments under the Ohio Voluntary Action Program (VAP) and other programs. Ed has both Master's and Bachelor's degrees in Biology. He has served on several committees, including the ASTM E50.04 Voluntary Cleanup Task Group and the generic standards and risk assessment committee under the Ohio EPA VAP Multi-Disciplinary Board. He is an active member of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and the Society for Risk Analysis.

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Robyn Raftis, IDEM

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Robyn has worked in the Office of Land Quality for twelve years, first as a geologist in the Science Services Branch. For the last three years, she's worked in the Leaking UST Section as an Environmental Project Manager. She earned Bachelor's and Master's Degrees in Geology at IUPUI.

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Bernd Rehm, ReSolution Partners

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Bernd W. Rehm received a MS in hydrogeology from the University of Waterloo in 1977. After 31 years in research and consulting with projects ranging from solvents in karst aquifers to mercury in sediments, he and a partner established ReSolution Partners in 2004. ReSolution Partners' focus on remediation technology extends from treatability studies in the Madison, WI laboratory to remediation design and full-scale implementation with projects across the United States and other countries.

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Joshua Richards, PG, CHMM, Pace Analytical Energy Services

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Joshua Richards is the Program Manager for the Pace Analytical Energy Services division. Joshua will be leading the sales and technical effort for Pace's Energy Services Laboratory located in Pittsburgh, PA. Joshua has been with Pace for over two years and previously served as an account executive in the Indiana market. Prior to coming to Pace, Josh spent eight years as an assessment/remediation geologist in the consulting industry working for Golder Associates in multiple offices worldwide. Joshua's professional experience includes working on environmental projects governed by both state and federal regulations. These sites included large scale assessment/ remediation sites in accordance with RCRA, CERCLA, and Superfund guidance. Joshua's experience includes management and implementation of bioremediation, ISCO, ISTR, as well as traditional source removal activities.

Josh's combined ten years of relevant experience in environmental remediation and consulting coupled with his more recent analytical experience provides a unique perspective to the remediation marketplace.

Mr. Richards received his BA in Geology from Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis and his MS in Geology from the University of Florida. He is a registered professional geologist in the states of Florida and Indiana. Additionally, Mr. Richards is a Certified Hazardous Materials Manager, a national certification.

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Elham Shirazi, University of Kentucky

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Elham Shirazi is a PhD candidate in the Department of Civil Engineering at the University of Kentucky and anticipates graduating in Spring 2019. She joined Dr. Kelly Pennell's research lab at University of Kentucky in Fall of 2014. She earned her MS in environmental engineering from University of Tehran in Iran in 2012. From 2012 to 2013, she worked as an environmental design consultant for an engineering firm in Iran and designed water and wastewater treatment plants. Her research interests include the fate and transport of environmental contaminants, risk assessment, indoor air quality and environmental systems modeling. She conducts environmental research related to fate and transport of contaminants in the subsurface and in indoor spaces.

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Steven P. Sittler, P.G., Patriot Engineering & Environmental Inc.

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Mr. Sittler holds a B.S. in Earth Sciences from the University of Indianapolis, an M.S. in Geology from Purdue University, and is a Licensed/Registered Professional Geologist in multiple states. He has more than 33 years of technical experience in applied hydrogeology, with specialized expertise in remedial strategy development and implementation. He has managed and performed more than 1,000 site investigation/remediation projects at industrial facilities, petroleum bulk storage facilities & refineries, and service stations in more than 20 states, and has extensive expertise in remedial strategy development and remedial design and implementation. Mr. Sittler's experience includes hundreds of remediation projects involving both innovative closure strategies, as well as unique applications of conventional technologies for both chlorinated solvents and petroleum hydrocarbons.

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John Sohl, Columbia Technologies

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John Sohl is co-founder of COLUMBIA Technologies, a global platform for advanced site characterization technologies. John brings 35 years of experience in directing the development of innovative business solutions fusing science and technology to advance the state of developing site conceptual models.

John and COLUMBIA Technologies are members of the Sustainable Remediation Forum, the Small Environmental Business Action Coalition, the Network for Industrial Contaminated Land in Africa and Brazil, and ASTM International.

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Randy St. Germain, Dakota Technologies

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Randy St. Germain, President of Dakota Technologies, Inc., developed much of Dakota's underlying time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology while pursuing a M.S. Analytical Chemistry degree at North Dakota State University from 1987 to 1991. Randy and his colleagues have developed a continually improving series of direct push deployable site characterization systems for high-definition delineation of petroleum, coal tar, and creosote NAPLs in the subsurface. From early research field trials of LIF at Air Force bases in 1992, through subsequent commercialization of the ROST, UVOST, TarGOST, and the new DyeLIF system for chlorinated DNAPLs, Randy has spent the last 25 years characterizing NAPL bodies with LIF.

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Harold Templin, IDEM

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Harold works as a geological environmental specialist in the Science Services Branch of the Office of Land Quality at IDEM. Harold has over 30 years of experience of designing and evaluating ground water monitoring systems, site characterization work plans, sampling and analysis plans, and statistical evaluation plans. While working at IDEM Harold has sat on numerous panels setting policy and guidance for closure of land disposal facilities, and risk assessment of corrective action sites. Harold earned a BS degree in geology from Indiana State University in 1972. Additionally, Harold has taken additional graduate level courses in hydrogeology and groundwater modeling at Indiana University. Harold is a licensed professional geologist in the State of Indiana.

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Rod Thompson

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Rod is a regulatory toxicologist who has worked both in the private sector and as a government regulator. As a regulator, Rod worked with Indiana's Risk Based Closure program for over twenty years. During that time, he helped develop Risk Based Closure policy and was the architect of Indiana's Screening and Closure Level Tables and their application for all commercial, residential and trespass exposures. Rod was also primarily responsible for the development of Indiana's initial Vapor Intrusion (VI) program. Rod has commented extensively and made presentations to USEPA, ASTDR and other regulatory entities on toxicology, EPA VI drafts and States' programs for practical use issues involving risk assessment, screening exposure levels and their application. Rod lectures on, vapor intrusion, environmental toxicology and risk assessment for the Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis School of Public and Environmental Affairs. He has authored numerous papers on chlorinated solvents, their toxicity, and impact on vapor intrusion. Rod has a Masters in Toxicology from IU School of Medicine and a BS in Biology/Chemistry from Southern Oregon College.

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Shannon Thompson, 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC

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Shannon is a registered P.E. and obtained a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wyoming in 2000. Shannon cofounded 212 Environmental Consulting, LLC with four of her colleagues in 2016, which has allowed her to continue to expand her technical work while also wearing many different hats as is a necessity at a small startup company. Her career has been focused on human health risk assessment and vapor intrusion assessment and mitigation. Her risk assessment and vapor intrusion experience include evaluation of all major media and exposure pathways, regulatory negotiation, development of sampling programs, collection and validation of robust data sets, and preparation of complex assessment reports. She has worked at sites ranging from small UST release sites to large complex active and inactive refineries with both petroleum and chlorinated releases. She has interfaced with multiple stakeholders including clients, regulators, lawyers, business owners, residents, and community interest groups. She has actively participated in development of regulatory guidance including the Interstate, Technology and Regulatory Council’s 2014 Petroleum Vapor Intrusion Guidance.

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Jennifer Williams, AECOM

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Jennifer Williams is a Senior Project Manager with AECOM and resides in the Indianapolis, Indiana area. She has a Bachelor of Science in Geology and has over 18 years of experience in the consulting and utility industries. Jennifer has served as a local Health & Safety coordinator, manages project staff between three offices, and specializes in project management of quarterly groundwater sampling programs, site investigations, soil remediation, limited building demos, and excavation activities for former manufactured gas plant sites and numerous railroad spill sites.

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Scott Wilson, REGENESIS

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Scott Wilson is President & CEO of REGENESIS, a global leader in the development of technologies for the restoration of contaminated land. Patented technologies developed by REGENESIS have been used in the restoration of over 25,000 environmental project sites worldwide. Mr. Wilson is a widely published expert with 25 years of experience in applied microbiology and bioremediation processes. He is a recognized thought leader in the commercialization of environmental technologies with a proven track record spanning three decades. As Vice President of Remediation Technology with Groundwater Technology, Inc., he led the team of scientists and engineers who developed GTI's industry-leading in situ processes. He has overseen the design and implementation of more than 100 innovative full-scale remediation projects employing advanced technologies. He was appointed to provide technical oversight for the USEPA Bioaction Committee and served for eight years on the faculty of the National Water Well Association (now the NGWA). Mr. Wilson received a M.S. from the University of Texas at El Paso in applied microbiology (related to geochemistry and petroleum engineering), and an M.B.A. from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University.

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